AComparison of Equisedative Infusions of Propofol and

Date of publication: 2017-09-03 19:44

To prevent blood clots from forming and causing complications such as a stroke or a pulmonary embolus (a clot in the lung), anticoagulants are given through an IV, an injection, or in a pill form.


Use the most concentrated form/lowest volume of the medication available – ideal volumes are about to ml per nostril to reduce runoff but allow maximal mucosal coverage.[6] Use both nostrils to double the absorptive surface area. Deliver the drug as an atomized spray to maximize surface area coverage. Beware of reduced effect in patients with bloody noses or high mucous production in nasal cavity

Overview of intranasal medication delivery

Surgeons may also have specific instructions for the surgical incision site, like how to provide proper wound care, and order blood tests to check for signs of bleeding or infection.

Common Medications Before, During, and After Surgery

On a side note, it s important to note that quitting smoking is ideal prior to surgery as it will lower your risk of lung complications after surgery, most notably  pneumonia .

Analgesics, or pain medications, are used to control pain after surgery. They are available in a wide variety of forms and can be given in a number of ways like through an IV, pill form, lozenge, suppository, liquid, and even as a patch, where the medication is absorbed through the skin.

Most major surgical procedures require general anesthesia. With general anesthesia, a medication called an anesthetic  is used to induce unconsciousness and ensure you do not feel any pain. It can either be given through the vein (intravenously) or through a breathing mask or tube. An example of an anesthetic often used to induce anesthesia is propofol. 

After a person has completed surgery in an operation room, he will go to a recovery room where nurses will closely monitor vitals (for example, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure), and ensure adequate pain control as the person begins to fully wake up from the anesthesia.

Before surgery, you will meet your anesthesiologist. At this visit, you will review all your medical and dental problems and allergies, as well as any medicines you are taking, including herbal supplements, vitamins, and any over-the-counter drugs like aspirin.

If blood flow to the nasal mucosa is poor, absorption of drug will be poor. This can occur in situations where previous events have destroyed the nasal mucosa (trauma, surgery, cocaine induced destruction of the mucosa). Topical vasoconstrictors such as recent snorting of cocaine will also dramatically reduce absorption. Finally, if the patient has a bloody nose or large volumes of mucous production, the applied medication is either washed off, or has trouble gaining contact with the nasal mucosa and cannot be absorbed.

Intranasal (IN) medication delivery is simply another option or method to deliver medications to the patient’s blood stream to achieve a desired clinical effect. It is a tool in the armamentarium just as oral, rectal, sublingual, intramuscular and intravenous delivery methods are also tools to deliver medications.

The drugs commonly used before, during, and after surgical procedures vary widely from patient to patient. This is because the specific drugs you receive are based on the type of surgery you are having, the anesthesia you will be undergoing, and any underlying health problems you have.  

The strength of individual pain medications varies widely, just as the dosage prescribed by a physician can be different from one patient to another. For this reason, the medication prescribed will depend greatly on the condition for which it is prescribed.

Commonly prescribed pain-easing medications given in the hospital after surgery through a person s vein include Duramorph (morphine) and  Dilaudid (hydromorphone)  which are opioids.

If staying overnight, a person will eventually move to a hospital room for further rest, recovery, and pain management. Once in the hospital room, nurses and doctors will continue to monitor vitals as well as urine output and the rate of intravenous fluids.

In addition to taking your medications as prescribed, it s important that you adhere to the recommendations of your nurses and doctors. This may include engaging in daily walking (with or without an assistive device), as well as muscle strengthening exercises and following a specific diet plan.

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